Cheat sheet

A glossary of terms to comprehend some important notions that you’ll likely encounter during the learning path.

Updated over a week ago

Note: The easiest way to find the right term among the ones presented here is to use the keyboard shortcut CTRL + F (on Windows) or CMD + F (on macOS).



Actions are where the logic behind your application takes place. An action exists of a flow of multiple action steps.

Action step

An action step is a step within an action. Each action has a starting step and an ending step, in between you can create steps to create the logic of your action.


An attribute is a characteristic of an entity that it identifies or describes. It can be compared with a column in a table. The purpose of an attribute is to store data values.

Automated process

A term used to describe a digital technology to perform a process or processes that aim to accomplish a workflow or function. Automation reduces time, effort and cost-reducing manual errors.


The back-end represents the “inner side” of an application: it stores data arranged by certain categories and rules of operating syntax. Users can’t see or directly interact with this part of the website.

Command-line interface (CLI)

CLI is made for connecting a user to a program or operating system. It accepts input commands to execute various operations. The most common command-line interface examples are MS-DOS on Windows and Terminal on macOS.


A component is an element on your page, the functionality of the component varies by its type. For example, form components are used when working with forms but when you want to show data on your page then data components are your friend.

Data model

A data model represents real-world events and processes conceptually as a diagram. It reflects data, data relationships and business rules. It defines what data is required and how it should be organized. It can be compared with a building design.


The process of debugging means detecting or removing errors in software code. For example, a developer can run a debugging process to see where exactly they’ve made a mistake in a code.


An entity is a person, place or thing for which we want to collect and store multiple instances of data. An entity can be compared with a single stand-alone unit or business object for which data is stored in a database.


Expressions are pieces of custom functionality that you can use in several places in your application. For example, you can have an expression variable that calculates a value in an action.


The front-end refers to the visual representation of the functionality of a website. Users directly interact and experience all of its elements: images, buttons, colors, navigation menus, etc.


A plan, design, or arrangement of elements on the page: text, graphics, panels, grids, etc.


A process of combining two or more groups of data into a single unit. For example, if two files contain a list of names in alphabetical order, merging the two into one will result in one large file with names still in alphabetical order.


Your data model is made out of models. Models can be seen as real-life objects such as a Car, Person, or Order.


A mockup suggests a final static visual representation of an application. It includes layout, colors, icons, logos, and other elements of the user interface.


Describes what’s in a model. For example, the model Invoice has a property total_price.


The relation between models allows the models to be connected so you can retrieve data via one model to see specifics from another model. For example, creating a detailed view that shows your users all the products within an order.


A software or hardware token is an object that grants the right to perform some actions. That is a unique identifier of an interaction session given to access control to some operations.


Before an action executes its steps the action needs to know when it has to execute; this is called a trigger. For example, when a user submits some data an action needs to be triggered that creates a new record.


A dynamic mechanism of testing and validating that a product, service, system or data meets customers’ or organization’s needs and requirements. This process helps to ensure that data is delivered accurately and completely.


A variable is a value that can change depending on conditions or information that it has. Variables are used to store information that you can use for example within your actions. You can create variables yourself as well to store information.

Getting started

API (Application programming interface)

API is a set of programming code that allows two applications to interact with each other. This technology enables companies to open their data and functionality to third-party partners. For example, every time you’re using a weather checking app, it works through an API.


In the case of computer science and technology, a canvas is a container that holds various drawing elements (lines, shapes, frames, etc.).

Cascading style sheets (CSS)

A stylesheet language is used to describe how a document written in HTML or XML is depicted on screen, paper or other media. It sets the background color, font size, colors and other properties of the web page.


A grid is a system of content arrangement that helps designers place elements within a web page.


A kind of connection point between two software applications that communicates information we want to receive in the end.


End-to-end describes a process of analyzing the set of interactions between customers and organizations through their relationship. The idea is to provide the customer with proper interactions at each step of the process and by doing this enhance their experience.

Enterprise resource planning (ERP)

ERP is a type of software, an application that automates business processes and helps manage daily business operations. An ERP system allows for collecting, storing and analyzing data within operations in one centralized location.


This abbreviation means Hypertext Markup Language - a standard markup language for the web that defines the structure of web pages. This markup gives web browsers the information on how to display web pages’ words and images.


The dynamic programming language used for web development, web applications, game development, etc. It controls everything that moves, refreshes, and the changes that happen on your screen without requiring you to manually refresh pages.

JSON (JavaScript Object Notation)

A text-based format is used to store and transfer data. It is often used to send data from a server to a web page. JSON has a specific syntax derived from JavaScript.

Landing page

A landing page is a standalone web page, distinct from any other pages of the website. Usually, it serves a particular purpose. The goal of this kind of page is to present marketing campaigns, and special offers and guide visitors to a single call to action.


Two standards-based web services REST & SOAP define how to build application programming interfaces (APIs). They allow data to be communicated between web applications. The main difference between them is that SOAP is a protocol, whereas REST isn’t.


An acronym for What You See Is What You Get. It’s a user interface that allows the user to view and edit content in a form that looks very similar to the end result. An example of such an interface is MS Word which enables users to see on display what they will get on a printed document.


Integrated development environment (IDE)

This term refers to software made for building applications. IDE unites all kinds of developer tools (text editor, toolbar output view, etc.) into a single interface.

Nested component

A child component associated with a parent component is called nested. Basically, it’s one component inside the other.


A sequence of pages that are connected and have similar or related content. Pagination could be a numbering of pages usually located at the bottom of a web page.

Recurring elements

These kinds of elements can be repeated at various intervals throughout the process or piece of work.

Search engine optimization (SEO)

The process of improving a website for search engines. SEO aims to obtain traffic from free or so-called “organic” search results rather than direct or paid.

Data model


The acronym DTAP is short for Development, Testing, Acceptance, and Production. Expressing a phased approach to software testing and deployment. Sometimes also called ‘Development street’.


A query language (QL) for API and runtime (typically served over HTTP) for fulfilling queries with existing data. It helps with data fetching and serving between client and server runtime. GraphQL is different from most query languages (like SLQ) because it isn’t used to store some particular data, but to query data from any number of sources.


The name of a relational management database system developed by Oracle corporation based on structural query language (SQL). MySQL is used for storing, retrieving, exploiting and manipulating data by making special requests (queries).

oData (Open data protocol)

An open REST-based protocol for querying and updating data. It is built on technologies like HTTP, XML and JSON. OData provides a way of describing data and data models for interoperability between different data sources, applications and services.


A multi-model relational database management system that stores data in its memory instead of keeping it on a disc. This data is retrieved by applications. Widely used for performing real-time analytics, and developing real-time apps.

Universally unique identifier (UUID)

A 128-bit value used to identify objects or entities on the web. The term globally unique identifier (GUID) is also rather widely used.


Extensible markup language (XML)

A kind of markup language similar to HTML, that is a set of codes or tags used to describe data. XML represents a simple text-based format for structured information: documents, data, configuration, books, etc.


An open-source template language used in many web applications. It uses a combination of objects, tags, and filters inside template files to display dynamic content. Like any other programming language, Liquid has its own syntax, logic and interacts with variables.


A loop is used for executing a repeated block of statements until some particular condition is satisfied.

Secure file transfer protocol (SFTP)

This kind of protocol uses secure shell encryption to provide high-level security for sending and receiving file transfers. Generally, it protects data from attacks.

Secure shell protocol (SSH)

SSH is a network protocol that enables two computers to communicate. The protocol is a method for secure remote login from one computer to another.

Back office

Comma-separated values (CSV)

A CSV file is a plain text file that uses a comma to separate values in it. Each line of the file is a data record.


Pantone color code

A standardized color matching system that is widely used around the world. It was devised to help printers and designers specify and control colors for printing projects. Pantone provides a universal language of color that enables color-critical decisions through every stage of the workflow for brands and manufacturers.


These two are protocols used to retrieve messages from the mail server to the receiver. Post office protocol (POP) is much simpler as it allows downloading messages from your inbox (one device only), whereas Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) allows the user to see all the folders on the mail server and messages can be accessed from multiple devices.


A name of an authorization framework for REST/APIs designed to allow a website or application to access resources hosted by other web apps.


Red, green and blue. A color model representing the colors used on a computer display.

Secure Socket Layer (SSL)

A standard web security technology is a protocol establishing a secure channel between two devices that are connected over the Internet or internal connection. It guarantees that the information transmitted between these two devices is private.



A multi-model relational database in which the collection of data is treated as a unit. Like other relational databases, it is mainly used for storing and retrieving data. Commonly used for running online transaction processes.

My Betty Blocks


DNS stands for Domain name server. It’s a hierarchical naming system that translates domain names from understandable domain names into unique numerical identifiers (IP addresses).

Domain Keys Identification Mail (DKIM)

An email authentication method that lets organizations detect whether messages are changed in transit between sending and receiving. Generally, this technique protects senders and recipients from spam, spoofing and phishing attacks.

Simple mail transfer protocol (SMTP)

An SMTP is a computer or an application responsible for sending emails, unlike IMAP and POP3 which are used for receiving emails.

Sender Policy Framework (SPF)

This is an email authentication method that is used to prevent spammers from sending messages from your domain. It allows the company to specify who is allowed to send emails on behalf of the domain.


Active Directory Federation Services (ADFS)

This component was created by Microsoft as a single sign-on feature that provides safe access to domains, websites, applications and systems within the organization’s active directory. It simplifies the user experience, at the same time allowing the organization to keep a high level of security.

Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML)

A standard-based protocol for exchanging digital authentication signatures that uses XML for communication between identity providers and server providers.

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